The Society is the Solar System's dominant human government. It has been in effect for over 700 years, ruling the lives of at least 14 generations of Humanity. Its people are separated into different "Colors," indicating both caste and vocation. Proponents of the Society consider it to be the most effective and perfect government ever devised by Man. Prior to The Rising, The Society encompassed roughly 18 billion souls.
In order to colonize other worlds, humanity naturally required an immense force of dedicated labor. By genetic and surgical manipulation, mankind was gradually discriminated into the various Colors of The Society. Initially, Gold was merely a rank, indicated by the wearing of a gold uniform. Over time, undesirable traits were bred-out of the ruling class and their physical and mental abilities were escalated to what 21st-century Man would call super-human.
Once The Society had established itself on the first colonies, Gold decided that Earth was no longer a necessary governing body but a meddlesome parent. So there was war. Earth lost and was supplanted by The Society as the guiding star of humanity’s destiny.
Oligarchic hierarchy. Gold is the ruling class and The Senate are selected from their ranks. It is unclear if Senators gained their position by inheritance, appointment, election or some other way.
Each individual planet is run by an ArchGovernor, while individual cities on a planet are run by Governors. Moons that orbit an inhabited planet are run by subGovernors.
The Society's forces include at least eight fleets of starships.
The Society's star fleets were organized into at least two armadas made up of two or more fleets with overlapping spheres of influence.
The Scepter Armada:
- The 1st Fleet presumably serves as the defense fleet for Luna
- The 2nd Fleet presumably serves as the defense fleet for Earth
The Martian Armada
- The 5th Fleet (Classis Libertas), patrols the inner belt. It was under the direct command of Martian ArchGovernor Nero au Augustus until March of 742 PCE.
- The 6th Fleet presumably serves as the defense fleet for Mars. It was under the command of Tiberius au Bellona until March of 742 PCE.
- The 4th Fleet (Classis Venetum) defends Venus
- The 8th Fleet (Classis Saturnis) presumably defends Saturn.
Within these fleets, each ship is piloted by Blues, while ground combat and ship boarding is conducted by Grays, Obsidians, and Golds. Gold military ranks include Legate, Praetor, Imperator, archImperator, and archLegate.
Within each fleet, ripWings are organized into squadrons consisting of twelve fighters each.
After the Second Moon Lord Rebellion and the fall of Octavia au Lune, only a fraction of the Core world fleets remained under Society control. The remaining fleets were commanded by the Ash Lord, and became known as the Ash Armada, and by 753 PCE had been grouped into at least 12 major subdivisions, favoring smaller forces with greater individual autonomy.
- The 1st fleet
- The 3rd fleet, commanded by House Carthii.
- The 11th fleet, commanded by House Cerana.
- Earliest known period of operation was August 753 PCE.
- Consists of 2 destroyers, 6 torchShips, and 10 frigates.
The Society's ground forces are organized into at least thirteen legions at the time of the Rising, and by 754 PCE had expanded to at least twenty.
- Legio Zero Pavor Nocturnis: Zero Legion. Also formally referred to as Night Terrors but colloquially known as the Gorgons. Commanded by Atlas au Raa as of 747 PCE.
- X Legio Pardus: the 10th Legion. Also referred to as the Iron Leopards. Commanded by Ajax au Grimmus as of 754 PCE.
- The 11th Legion. Also referred to as the Golden Basilisks.
- XIII Legio Dracones: the 13th legion. Also referred to as Dragoons. Under the direct command of the Ash Lord at the time of the Rising.
- XX Legio Fulminata - the 20th legion. Also known as the Thunderbolt Legion.
The Society is centered around the Core, Luna, but the reach of the Society extends throughout the Solar System, though the Society's progress stopped once the Solar System was inhabited, as noted by Lorn au Arcos in Golden Son.
All Colors of the Society are genetically modified humans. The population in 736 PCE totals around 18 billion, with about 100 million being Golds. In 741 PCE there were 132,680 Peerless Scarred out of 40 million adult Golds, they being the only golds allowed to join the military. To differentiate their class, they were genetically altered to have different color-coded eyes and hair, with vibrance defining the tiers in each class.
All Colors also have Sigils implanted into both wrists and attached to the metacarpus to provide additional identification. Most of them were designed based on the alchemical symbols. 
There is no unifying religion among the Colors of The Society. Reds believe that in death, they will meet an Old Man, who shepherds the souls of the departed on to the afterlife. Obsidians worship Golds as literal Gods (a measure enforced upon them in response to a dangerously-effective rebellion). Golds are characterized as entirely Atheist.
If one had to name a “Religion” of The Society, it would be The Society itself. Indeed, Humans of every color are indoctrinated to worship (in effect, if not in name) the structure and rigidity of the hierarchy.
Economic activities mainly occur with further planets engaging in trading with the Core. Economics are generally handled by Silvers, most notably Regulus ag Sun.
Depending on social caste and rank, different members of society receive different levels of education. For example, a Blue pilot would be trained in flying starships and spacefaring theory from a young age, but a Red laborer who would have no use for that would not. An Obsidian would be trained to fight and battle, but an Orange would be learning about gears and mechanisms. It all depends on what their color does (Reds mine, Obsidians fight, etc)
Each planet has at least one standardized school for most Colors.
- The Institute for Golds
- The Observatory for Blues
- The Grove for Violets
- The Gardens for Pinks
Golds are able to pursue further education after graduation from The Institute. These educational facilities are scattered throughout the Solar System, each dedicated to a specific profession.
- The Academy - for training in space combat. Located in the Asteroid Belt
- The Politico School - on Luna
- Judiciar School -Venus
Each Caste has their own unique culture, even having different beliefs or religions, most obvious amongst the Reds and Obsidians with the Old Man and revering the Golds as gods, respectively.
The High Colors often entertain themselves with lavish parties, courtesans, or semi-barbaric sports at lower classes' expense. Those who indulge in these pleasures are called Pixies and are looked down upon by other Golds who consider themselves above such things.
Golds have a sport known as GravCross.
In the lower castes, entertainment becomes more simple.
The Blue race fast, expensive ships around obstacle courses in a sport called Rip Racing. The most famous course is the Circus Maxima.
The Reds are shown to enjoy dancing, almost as if its in their blood.
Most citizens speak and write in midLingo, with the lowest classes somewhat literate, with the possible exception of Obsidians. Obsidians were stripped of all technology except Stone Age-level knowledge, and apparently they can speak Nagal. Golds and some higher-tiered Colors also learn the ancient languages of Latin, Arabic, Chinese, English and German, among others, as part of history and culture.
- Sons of Ares
- Praetorian guards
- Olympic Knights
- Intelligence Bureau
- Securitas Intelligence
Notes and References
- Red Rising, Chapter 16, Page 123. "It is the fifth and sixth fleets. The Armada of Mars. My breath catches in my breath. The Sixth Fleet is commanded by Cassius' father. The Fifth Fleet is under the ArchGovernor's direct control."
- A Drawing or Three - Pierce Brown and a tale of Red Rising - February 2014